The history of hotel business in Moscow is rooted in times when Moscow became the trade centre. Inns were the predecessors of modern hotels, which provided with ordinary accommodation and food. Palmers used to stay in monastic inns. In 16 century, in time of trade development there were inns especially for merchants. First inns were built in 12 century in Novgorod, when foreign commerce was developed. Inns developed into German, English, Greece, and Armenian national characteristic.
Inns' work in Moscow and in all Rus was regulated with code of rules. Skra code contained the rules of accommodation, payment, inn regulations, fire protection system, and etc. Skra is predecessor of Hotel services accordance in Russian Federation.
Peter the Great era gave the rise of foreign trade and hotel industry development. Though Saint-Petersburg was the capital of Russia, Moscow was the largest trade centre as before. In the middle of 18 century first hotels of European style were opened in Moscow. In the beginning of 19 century, 11 twin two-storeyed hotels were built on Bulvarny ring, in proximity to Prechistinskie, Nikitskie, Sretenskie, and Pokrovskie gates. Nowadays you can find one of those buildings of architect V. Stasov, who was the architect of edifices in Saint Petersburg and other cities.
In 19 century the number of hotels in Moscow was increased. Monastic inns were transformed into hotels. By the middle of 19 century there were a large number of hotels, full and half boarding houses, and furnished apartments for people with low income.
By 1910 228 hotels and 7 inns worked in Moscow. The largest hotels were Grand Hotel, Boyarsky Dvor, Novomorskaya Hotel, Europe, Slaviansky Bazaar. The most popular hotels were National hotel, Metroppol Hotel, and Savoy Hotel. The restaurants of many of these hotels were well-known in Russia.
After the October revolution all hotels were nationalized or closed. The largest hotels became the houses of Unions, where the representatives of government lived. For example, Soviet government stayed in National Hotel, in 107 room of this hotel Lenin and Krupskaya lived. In 20-30s the building of first Soviet hotels started. Their building was carrying out during the reconstruction of Moscow centre. In 1930 Okhotny ryad with its shops, stores, pubs, and churches, including Paraskavel Friday chapel were destroyed, new Moscow Hotel was built. In fifties Altai Hotel, Zarya Hotel, Golden ear Hotel, Ostankino, Tourist, Yaroslavskaya, Ukraine Hotel, and Leningradskaya Hotel were the largest in Moscow. In succeeding years new hotels in Moscow, such as Uzhnay, Salut, Aeroflot, Izmailovo were built outside Boulevard ring due to the end of city centre restoration and lack of place there.
All hotels of USSR became famous for lack of free rooms. This feature gave a food for satire. Tourist Hotel and other hotels where foreigners stayed were surrounded with special atmosphere. Black-marketeers and government security services concentrated their attention on these hotels.
Perestroika changed many things in hotel business. Many hotels became the part of new business. Radisson, Marriot, Swisshotel nets appeared in the labour-market. Heliopark and Katerina-City were their competitors. Balshcug Kempinsky, Ararat Park Hayatt, President Hotel five-star hotels of Moscow were new symbols of comfort and luxury. A number of mini-hotels have been opened lately, but three-star hotels were more popular due to high level of service and wide choice of facilities.
Moscow is a business centre, so many hotels offer business facilities. Such hotels as Mezhdunarodnaya Hotel, Iris Congress, and Cosmos specialize in organization of business events, offer modern equipment and wide choice of business amenities.
New hotels are built every year. There were 170 hotels in 2005, in the middle of 2006 — 180, in the middle of 2007 — 203. New hotels are very expensive, still there is lack of available hotels in Moscow. According to results of Business Travel International company's investigations, hotel prices in Moscow are higher than in London, New York, and Paris. Tri Hospitality consulting company displayed that profit from one room in Moscow is higher than in 10 largest Europe cities.
This statistics worries Moscow government, in April 2007 General plan of hotels location in Moscow was accepted. According to this plan 248 new three-star hotels will be built by 2010. If the plans are carried out Moscow Hotels will be able to place 180-200 thousands tourists every day.
Arbat Hotel is conveniently located in the historical centre of Moscow, in some minutes' walk from Old and New Arbat, which gave it its name. Six-floor building of Arbat Hotel is surrounded with ancient mansions, museums, different foreign embassies.
Baltschug Kempinski Hotel is situated in Baltschug part of the city. This old district, located between Moscow river and Vodootvodny channel, is known since 14 century. Its name comes from Tatar word — balschekh, which means dirt and bog. Formerly there were public baths, then there was a pub for the oprischniks of Ivan the Terrible. In 19 centu...
Cosmos Hotel is situated in the north-east of Moscow, opposite the Russian Exhibition Centre. The hotel was named after close located Cosmonauts avenue and monument to Space-explorers. Space theme is used in design of hotel interiors.
On the threshold of 12 th Olympic games the building of different units began. In this period Izmailovo Hotel's history began its existence.
Korston Hotel (Orlenok Hotel in former) is situated in south-west of Moscow. Twenty-storeyed building of Orlenok Hotel was built in 1976. Like many Moscow hotels, this hotel was built on the threshold of Olympic Games. The hotel was named after the popular song about civil war.
Leningradskaya Hotel is situated in one of seven famous skyscrapers, built in Moscow in 1940-50. Among these skyscrapers of Stalin period, Leningradskaya Hotel is the smallest one, just of 136 m height. Imposing tower of
Metropol Hotel is situated in the heart of Moscow, in front of Bolshoi Theatre and in immediate proximity to Red square and Kremlin. The Metropol was founded in 1905 as a part of the grandiose project of the famous businessman and patron of art Savva Mamontov. According to the first Mamontov's plan, the hotel had to be the part of cultural centr...
Moscow Hotel plays a great role in the history of Russian capital. The hotel, built under Soviet regime, was situated in the heart of Moscow, in proximity to Kremlin.
National Hotel is one of the oldest hotels in Moscow. It is situated in the heart of city, at the corner of Tverskaya and Mokhovaya streets, near with Red Square, Kremlin, and Aleksandrovsky Garden. Its history is connected with the history of Moscow and Russia.
Russia Hotel, built in 1967, was the symbol of Russian hospitality. Tedious building of the hotel wasn't the decoration of city centre. For many years it was the largest hotel in Moscow, till the middle seventies Russia Hotel was registered in Ginious book of world records as the largest hotel of Europe.
Savoy Hotel is one of the oldest hotels in Moscow. Five-storey building of Savoy Hotel in neoclassicism style is situated in the very heart of Moscow, in proximity to Bolshoi Theatre, at the intersection of two old streets Rozhdestvenka and Pushechnaya. Balconies with columns, modeled masks, semicircular windows give elegant form to the whole bu...
Building of skyscrapers started in the end of 1940. According to the town-planners, these towers had to renew Moscow historical centre. Skyscrapers embodied the splendour of Stalin Empire style.
Three-star Zarya Hotel is a part of Maxima Hotels net, situated in ecologically favorable region, close to the Ostankino Estate, the Botany Garden, and the All-Russian Exhibition Center. Proximity to the Exhibition Center is convenient for business people. Two five-story buildings of this hotel, raised in 1956, offered the guests moderate comfor...